1865 – CRUISE AND TRANS-ATLANTIC HISTORY: Enterprise and Prosperity of the Transatlantic Steamship Companies.; The Great Ferries Across the Ocean. Extensive Preparations and Extra Accommodations for the Summer Travel following the American Civil War.
A “travel story” from the New York Times… June 7, 1865
Thousands of our citizens who had no heart for making pleasure trips abroad during the past four years of internecine strife, are, now that the war is happily ended, casting about for the best, the safest, the cheapest and the most expeditious means of making the Transatlantic trip. For the especial benefit of this class, we have collected a variety of information concerning the several steamship lines, now in operation between this country and Europe, and publish it to-day, confident that it will prove timely and useful, not only to those who are contemplating a voyage across the Atlantic, but also to the general reader. We give on account of the seven leading steamship lines, all of which, it will be seen, are owned entirely by foreign companies; a fact which should carry with it considerable humiliation to ourselves as a maritime people.
The Liverpool, New-York and Philadelphia Steamship Company (usually known as the “Inman Line”) commenced their Transatlantic operations in 1850, with the well-known screw-steamers City of Glasgow, City of Manchester and Kangaroo. It will thus be seen that this line has been in successful operation for nearly fifteen years. This company was the first to perceive the important fact that there existed among the great multitudes of emigrants from England and the continent a certain class, known in Europe as “the middle classes,” and that a new field could be at once gained by providing a better style of cheap passage for this especial class.
Acting upon this obvious view of the actual wants of the better classes of emigrants, the company commenced with three steamers, the first screw marine to cross the Atlantic, and they were the first steamships to carry emigrant passengers; and they have been so successful and prosperous that from a fleet of three steamers, making monthly trips, they have steadily progressed until now, after fifteen years of uninterrupted prosperity, the company finds itself with a gigantic fleet of sixteen vessels, running semi-weekly trips between Liverpool and New-York.
The first opening of the line took place between Liverpool and Philadelphia, carrying in the beginning none but first-class cabin passengers, but the vessels were soon after changed in their interior arrangements to permit of their receiving emigrant passengers. After a few years, however, the port of New-York was decided upon as the Western terminus of the route, and the wisdom of the change was at once apparent. This line claims to have landed, during late years, about half the passengers (all classes) carried across the ocean by steam, and that also the health of their passengers has been remarkably good, and that rarely a case of death has occurred on board. “In fact,” says the passenger clerk, “out of 42,000 passengers carried last year, I do not recollect hearing of a single death being reported.” We give our authority for the statement, as it is remarkable that so many persons could be transported across the ocean without at least some small percentage of deaths, and it speaks well both for the company’s care of their passengers, and the general health of the class of emigrants who avail themselves of the advantages of steam transportation.
The present fleet of the “Inman Line” consists of the City of Washington, City of Manchester, City of Cork, City of Boston, City of London, City of New-York, City of Baltimore, City of Dublin, City of Limerick, the Etna, the Edinburgh, the Kangaroo, the Glasgow, and the Bosplorus, the last a branch steamer. The City of Paris and City of Durham are now being built on the Clyde by Messrs. TODD & MACGREGOR, the first vessel being guaranteed to make fourteen knots per hour, or 336 miles every twenty-four hours, and she will perform the trip to Queenstown in eight days. The City of London made a passage from New-York to Queenstown in eight days and twenty-one hours, thus proving herself to be one of the fastest ocean steamers afloat. The City of Washington is distinguished among her sister ships as the first to land emigrants at New-York, and at that time the line made a trip semi-monthly, but increased emigration and increased trade generally rendered it imperatively necessary to add new vessels, until they have reached their present prosperous condition.
The steamers of the “Inman Line” are all full-powered, Clyde built iron screw-steamers, and have been built in the most approved form to secure safety in case of collision, being put together in water-tight compartments, &c., and it is believed that these ships might be cut in twain and no danger of sinking be apprehended.
As before stated, this line bestows great and especial attention to the successful carrying of emigrant passengers, affording at the same time a quick passage at low rates. The passengers are well cared for in the important matters of food and medical attendance, with such success in the latter point, that but few cases of sickness are reported outside of the unavoidable sea-sickness. In the culinary department considerable facilities are afforded, and unlike the time, not long ago, when the emigrant had to cook his own food, he is now furnished with fresh meat, tea, coffee and other luxuries and necessaries, all prepared in the best manner. The ventilation is good, and strict attention paid to cleanliness, &c.
One important feature in the business arrangements of this company is to be found in the fact that the friends of passengers, in all the principal cities in the United States, can pay for a ticket in America, bringing the passenger from inland points in Great Britain or the Continent to any city in the West or East, via railroad and steamboat communication. For instance, a person can purchase a ticket from the agent of the company in San Francisco, which will carry the holder or the party to whom it is sent from Paris to San Francisco; and in like manner passengers are brought from London, Liverpool, Dublin, Cork, Glasgow, &c., to St. Louis, New-Orleans, &c., requiring only one payment, and necessitating the company to see to the proper forwarding of any inexperienced wayfarer.
This line affords, it is plain to see, peculiar facilities and advantages to parties in America who would wish to make brief visits to their native land, but who cannot spare the time necessary for a trip in a sailing packet, nor the large amount of money requisite to secure a passage on any of the more pretentious lines. Cheapness and speed, coupled with good accommodations and perfect safety, are among the many leading characteristics of the “Inman Line.”
These steamers leave New-York every Wednesday and Saturday, from the company’s dock. Pier No. 44 North River. The rates of passage are, for first-class cabin, $105; second, $85, and third, $75. Steerage, $30. Mr. JOHN G. DALE, No. 15 Broadway, is the New-York agent.
This important company have a line of first-class steamships running between New-York and Havre, and it takes high rank among the many Transatlantic steamship companies sending vessels from this port. The company is of pure French origin, and have been granted the most liberal privileges and exclusive monopolies ever given any corporation by that government, and the resources of the company are of the richest and most substantial character. In addition to the New-York and Havre Line, of which it is our immediate province to speak, this company have had advantageous leases granted them by the French Government for five other important routes of travel and traffic, the monopoly of which extends for twenty years each. These lines comprise one to the Isthmus of Panama, one to Vera Cruz, one to South American ports, and another to New-Orleans direct; the route of the sixth and last line has not yet been determined upon, but it will soon be put into operation.
It will thus be seen that the General Transatlantic Steamship Company will have an immense fleet of first-class steamships at their command, and they intend making, always, the New-York and Havre Line the loading line, keeping upon that important route none but the highest class of steam marine, and placing upon the line every new ship built for the company, as fast as they leave the builders’ docks. The advantage they thus have over the great bulk of steamship companies is observable at a glance.
The capital of the company is almost unlimited, as it perforce must be to sustain and successfully carry on so many important routes of steamships, and it represents nearly every loading capitalist in France. Another peculiar feature of this company is, that they intend supplying all demands made upon their resources for accommodation, and, if found necessary, as they fully expect it will, the company will dispatch extra steamers to Europe, and run as many vessels as demand calls for, and in all probability their steamers will make weekly trips at an early day. From present indications this necessity will soon arise, for they cannot just at present fill all orders, but preparations to that end are in progress.
Bearing in mind the important fact that every new vessel of the large fleet now building for this company will be initiated on the New-York route, and that each succeeding ship will increase in size and capacity, the great advantages of securing passage in these superb vessels cannot be exaggerated. The steamers are all large, capacious and convenient, and the attention paid to the comfort of passengers by both the company and its employes, and the additional fact that no steerage passengers are carried by any of the vessels, thereby avoiding the discomforts and dangers of overcrowding, and also the first-class style of the appointments and management of the different steamers plying upon the line, give this route a preeminence fully warranted by their praiseworthy exertions to maintain the high position they have thus far won.
But one of the greatest advantages that distinguish this company is to be found in a new arrangement they have just perfected, by special permission of the French Government. We allude to the arrangements entered into by them with the French railroad companies for the speedy transmission of passengers arriving in their vessels direct to Paris, from either Bres or Havre, as the passengers themselves elect, at greatly reduced rates from the regular charges upon those roads. The very important feature of securing the safe transit of all baggage direct to Paris without detention or examination, is one that deserves especial attention. In the old way a passenger was compelled to remain over at least twenty-four, and frequently forty-eight hours, at Havre, at considerable expense and annoyance, not to say discomfort, and the new arrangement will be hailed with satisfaction and delight by the experienced traveler. It does away at one grand sweep with all the vexatious delays and tribulations so often met with in continental travel.
This company, although newly established, have always fulfilled every promise made, and not unfrequently have exceeded the expectations of their patrons. The charges for fare are not any higher than those of other lines, when one takes into consideration the advantages gained in comfort and room, by the absence of steerage passengers, and the line affords unusual facilities for those wishing to go to the continent, as travelers by this route avoid the passage across the channel from England, and thus save time and money.
The present fleet of the company consists of the steamships Washington and Lafayette, both of 3,204 tons burden, the splendid steamer Europa, nearly 4,000 tons, and of which an extended notice was published in the TIMES on her first arrival in this city. They have also nearly ready two additional vessels, to be called the France and Napoleon III, the first of 900 and the latter of 1,100 horse power. Both of these steamers will very shortly be placed on the line, and the company challenge comparison with them by any other line in the world. Not satisfied with this display of their enterprise and energy, the company have recently ordered two new vessels to be built by NAPIER & SONS, of Glasgow, of still greater size and speed. They will be named respectively the Ville de Paris and the Pereire. Other additions are contemplated at an early day.
These steamers leave New-York for Havre from the company’s wharf, Pier No. 50 North River. The rates of passage money (including table wine) from this port to France is $135 for first cabin, and $30 for second cabin passengers, passengers’ servants being charged second-class passage. The medical attendance is of a superior class and is furnished free.
Mr. GEORGE MACKENZIE, the agent of the company in New-York, can be consulted upon all minor particulars, at his office, No. 7 Broadway, Messrs. WM. ISELIN & CO. are the agents at Havre.
THE NATIONAL STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY.
Shortly after the commencement of the war, a company was organized in Liverpool for the purpose of carrying on some of the trade that at that early day was thought probable between the revolted States and Europe. The name and title of this company was the “British and American Steamship Company.” Owing to the protracted length of the war, trade could not be opened between Liverpool and New-Orleans, as that port was closed to foreign vessels. In this state of affairs the projected line remained until October, 1863, when it was determined to enlarge the resources and capabilities of the company, and establish a route between this port and Liverpool. After some consideration it was thought expedient to assume a new appellation as well as a more extended sphere of action, so the original corporation was merged in that of the “National Steam Navigation Company.” The company was established for the double purpose of carrying passengers and merchandise, and to perform these requirements they have obtained screw ships of the largest size and of the best construction, engined with such an amount of power as would render them as thoroughly efficient with respect to speed and other qualities as any steamers afloat, not subsidized mail boats. The expense of working the ships belonging to this company is materially lessened when compared with the working of the crack ships of the respective mail lines, yet the absolute speed of the National Company’s vessels is not by any means lessened in like proportion. This will be readily apparent to those familiar with the working of steamers.
The present fleet of the National Steam Navigation Company consists of five splendid steamships, viz., the Louisiana, of 2,166 tons and 250 horse-power; the Virginia, of 2,887 tons and 300 horse-power; the Pennsylvavia, of 2,889 tons and 300 horse-power; the Erin, 3,318 tons and 350 horse-power; the Helvetia, of 3,318 tons and 350 horse-power — thus giving an aggregate of 14,578 tons, and of 1,550 horse-power. All the vessels enumerated in the list above, have been built expressly for the trade in which they are employed, by Messrs. PALMER BROTHERS & CO., of Jarrow, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, and were constructed on the best principles of iron ship building, everything being done and every appliance introduced to secure strength and durability to the hulls.
In addition to these vessels, Messrs. PALMER are at present engaged in the construction of two new steamers for the company, of still larger size and greater power than any of the vessels afloat comprising this fleet, and these will be known as the England and Scotland. The first of these vessels was to have been launched during May, but will positively kiss the water before the 10th of the present month of June. Messrs. LAIRD BROTHERS, of Birkenhead, are also far advanced with the building of a third steamer named the Queen, and she was launched in April. This remarkably large steamer affords a good idea of the proposed style and capacity of the new additions to the company’s fleet. Her dimensions will be as follows: 370 feet long between perpendiculars, 42 1/2 feet in the extreme width of beam, and the depth of her hold to the spar deck is 29 feet. She is divided into eight water-tight compartments, and her gross register measurement will be 3,500 tons, but she will have a carrying capacity for 4,000 tons of cargo. Her engines will be of the horizontal, direct acting, surface-condensing class, of the following dimensions: Cylinders 68 inches in diameter, with piston stroke of three and a half feet, and at full speed, will be worked at a pressure of twenty-five pounds to the square inch, and their collective power will be 350 horse nominal, but capable of working up to 1,600 indicated.
The Queen is to be rigged as a bark, with square sails upon her fore and main-mast. Her topsails are double, and she is fully supplied with every means to work them from the deck, and so to spread or shorten sail immediately. Her anchors and chains are of the best class, of extra size and weight, and they have been tested to a very high strain. She is furnished with iron masts and steel yards, and her expected speed will be from 10 to 11 knots an hour, with comparatively a very moderate consumption of coal. The passenger accommodation of this large and beautiful steamship is very extensive, and of the very best order as regards comfort and safety. She will have ample accommodation for 70 first-class passengers.
It will thus be seen that these vessels have a large carrying capacity, and with a moderate consumption of coal, (less than one-half those of the regular mail lines,) gain a rate of speed nearly equal to many boats burning twice or three times the amount of fuel, thus enabling the line to do away with any subsidy from government, as the cargo carried contributes toward the maintenance of the line. The cabin accommodations on board these steamers are unsurpassed, and the rates lower than by any other line. Cabin passage, $100; steerage, $35 — payable in currency. Over 20,000 passengers were carried by these ships during the past year.
The company’s dock is situated at Pier No. 45, East River, and their steamers leave this port every Saturday for Liverpool, calling at Queenstown to land passengers. Messrs. WILLIAMS & GUION, No. 71 Wall-street, and No. 29 Broadway, are the agents in this city.
THE “ANCHOR LINE” OF STEAM PACKETS.
This company may be considered as of Scottish origin, but its connection with this country renders the company quite international. The fleet of the company consists of the Clyde built iron steamers Hibernia, Caledonia, Britannia, and United Kingdom, which are built specially for the Atlantic trade, being divided into water and air tight compartments, and are likewise fitted up in every respect to insure the safety and comfort of passengers. They are intended to sail regularly between New-York and Glasgow, forwarding passengers at through rates to their destination on either side of the Atlantic.
These steamers start from either New-York or Glasgow every other Saturday, and have every modern appliance for the proper and speedy working of the vessels while in port or on the ocean, being fitted up with all the improvements practical science can suggest for the safety, comfort and convenience of passengers. This line also books passengers with through tickets from their homes in the United States and Canadas to their final destination in Great Britain or Continental Europe, and grants through tickets from all stations on the British railways to the principal cities on this side of the ocean. In fact, passengers from Glasgow, Liverpool, Cork, Dublin, Newry, Belfast or Londonderry, are carried across the Atlantic for twenty-five dollars in gold, or its equivalent in currency, together with an unlimited supply of provisions, cooked and served up by the company’s steward, thus affording a remarkably cheap and quick passage to those unwilling to put up with the procrastinating voyage unavoidable on sailing packets. Passengers from the inland towns and cities are also brought to the nearest of the above seacoast ports at a very reasonable rate of fare, as their published tariff decidedly proves.
The fine new steamer Hibernia, under the command of the veteran Captain, JAS. CRAIG, leaves Glasgow on her first trip across the Atlantic next Saturday, the 10th inst., and returning will leave New-York on 1st July. This steamer is reported as being in every practical respect the finest model of an ocean freight and passenger steamer afloat, and on her arrival those interested in ocean steamers would do well to pay her a visit. The rates of passage from New-York to Glasgow, Liverpool, Belfast, Dublin or Londonderry are as follows: First, second and third cabins, $75, $60 and $50; intermediate, $35; steerage, $25. Messrs. FRANCIS MACDONALD & CO., No. 6 Bowling-green, are the New-York agents.
HAMBURG AMERICAN PACKET COMPANY.
The Hamburg American Packet Company established a line of sailing vessels in 1847, comprised, at that time, of the following favorite ships: The Deutschland, Nordamerika, Elle, Rhein, Oder, Donan, Main, Weser, and Neckar, and it was highly successful for some eight or nine years, doing a large share of the carrying trade of this port. In 1855 the company built the steamers Hammonia and Borussia, and they commenced running to this port monthly in the Spring of 1856. In 1857 the company extended their scheme of operations, and built the steamer Saxonia, which was finished and ran in the year following. In 1858 the company also acquired by purchase the steamers Bavaria and Teutonia, both of which had been built in 1856. These five fine steamers continued to run fortnightly trips with great success until 1863, when the splendid and powerful steamship Germania was added to the line. The Hammonia, now known as the Belgian, having been sold to the Montreal and Quebec Steamship Company the same year, the Hamburg line concluded to replace the same by a now steamer, the Allemania, which will be ready, it is expected, in July, and she will make her first trip to New-York in August next. All of these five first-class steamers were built by the celebrated firm of CAIRD & CO., Greenock, Scotland, except the Allemania, which is being constructed by the not less renowned firm of DAY & CO., Southampton.
The steamers in this line have direct-acting engines, except the Borussia, whose engines are indirect-acting, oscillating engines, while the Allemania will have horizontal-acting engines. The Borussia, Bavaria and Teutonia were provided with new and larger boilers during the past year, as well as several other modern improvements in their machinery, thereby adding considerably to their former speed. Most of the steamers on the line are also provided with new four-bladed propellers, the revolutions of which are scarcely perceptible in the vessel, being a decided improvement upon the old two and three-bladed propellers, for the vibrating effect of those old-style screws has always been the cause of much complaint on the part of passengers by ocean propellers.
As it at present stands this line consists of six splendid vessels, ranging from 2,300 tons to 2,600 tons burden, and from 425 horse to 575 horse-power; and the steamers leave New-York and Hamburg every alternate Saturday, touching at Southampton each way for passengers, mails and cargo. In consequence of the great rush of passengers here for Europe, the steamer Borussia will come out as an extra boat, and will leave this port on Wednesday, June 28, thus affording an excellent opportunity to passengers desirous of visiting the grand national shooting festival in Bremen, which opens on the 15th of July, which no doubt will surpass anything of the kind before produced in Germany.
The trade of the Hamburg line has been very satisfactory to its owners, and at times when trade was unusually heavy, the company, by their great number of boats, have always been enabled to accommodate the public by an extra boat. This year the rush of passengers here and in Europe is quite unprecedented.
The passenger’s agency of the line is in the hands of Messrs. C.B. RICHARD & BOAS, No. 6 Barclay-street, although first-cabin passage may also be engaged with Messrs. KUNHARDT & CO., General Agents, No. 45 Exchange-place, to whom is confided the entire management of the line on this side of the Atlantic. Fares to Hamburg, Havre, Southampton and London, are as follows: First cabin, $105; second cabin, $62 50; steerage, $37 50; payable in gold or its equivalent.
This company, like the Hamburg line, and as its name would indicate, is of German birth, being owned, principally, in Bremen, and was established in 1857, and have now running, in successful operation, a fine fleet of five steamers, consisting of the favorite and splendid iron mail steamships America, New-York, Hansa, Bremen, and a now vessel, the Hermann, now nearly finished. These vessels are all nearly three thousand tons burden, and seven hundred horsepower, consuming about fifty tons of coal each day.
These steamships have been constructed in the most approved manner, and are commanded by men of experience and character, who make every exertion to promote the comfort and safety of their passengers. The accommodations for passengers are very superior, offering capacious room for seventy-five first, one hundred and twenty second, and five hundred and fifty third-class passengers. The crew of each vessel consists of 120 men.
The company’s first steamship, the Bremen, arrived in New-York in June, 1858, and ever since then their ships have made regular and successful passages, earning, meanwhile, an excellent reputation among the commercial and traveling public. In Dec. 1863, the landing-place of these steamers on this side the Atlantic was transferred to a new establishment in Hoboken, where extensive, commodious and safe docks, together with an United States Bonded Warehouse, (built for their exclusive use,) offer far greater facilities than could be obtained on the New-York side of North River. Messrs. OELRICHS & CO., No. 68 Broad-street, are the company’s agents in this city. The following are the rates of fare for Bremen, Southampton, London and Havre: First cabin, upper saloon, $112 50; first cabin, lower saloon, $80; steerage, $45.
Not least in importance among the lines of oceangoing steamers is that known by the name of the Montreal Royal Mail Steamship Company. This company has been in existence for nearly ten years, and its projectors have used every endeavor to merit and retain public confidence and support, although the line has suffered some severe disasters. The ships of this line comprise the following: The Moravian, Belgian, North American, Peruvian, Hilernian, Nova Scotian, Damascus, St. George, St. David, St. Patrick, and St. Andrew, leaving Quebec every Saturday for Liverpool, and every Wednesday for Glasgow direct.
They are first-class iron screw propellers, noted for their completeness and superiority of the arrangements on board, particularly as regards the health and comfort of their passengers. Upon walking over any of the vessels just here enumerated, one cannot fail to be struck with the extent and excellence of the passenger accommodations; nor is this confined to the first class, but extends down to the very lowest priced berth in the steerage. The gentlemanly bearing of the captains and officers are, and ever have been, the theme of admiration and praise, facts which, coupled with the liberal and abundant supply of the best of provisions and quick and regular passages, entitle the line to favorable mention, seems to have been the aim of the projectors of the Montreal Royal Mail Steamship Company to earn public support by the excellence of their ships, the superiority of their passenger accommodation, with skillful and experienced commanders and officers, and good and varied dieting. In all these respects the company can point to a ten years’ experience, and without fear await the judgment of a discerning and appreciative public. These vessels run weekly in Summer between Montreal, Quebec and Liverpool, via Londonderry. In Winter they run to and from Portland, Me. In this city the company is represented by ELEAZOR JONES & CO., who always feel it not merely a duty, but a pleasure to impart all the information which intending emigrants should know. Messrs. JONES’ office is at No. 23 Broadway.
THE CUNARD LINE
The British and North American Royal Mail Steamship Company, by which imposing title this line is known abroad, but abbreviated by the American public to that of “The Cunard Line,” send a steamer each week to Liverpool, from New-York and Boston alternately. Those leaving New-York touch at Cork Harbor, while the Boston branch of the line touch at Halifax and Cork Harbor.
The fleet comprising the line consists of the following first-class side-wheel steamers: The Scotia, Capt. Judkins; Persia, Capt. Lott; Cuba, Capt. Stone; Africa, Capt. Shannon; China, Capt. J. Anderson; Australasian, Capt. T. Cook; Asia, Capt. Moodie, Europa, Capt. J. Leiteb; Canada, Capt. J. Muir; America, Capt. Small; Niagara, and the Java, now building; and they sustain, deservedly, a high rank in our steam marine. The company has always enjoyed the great advantage of heavy subsidies from the British Government, as well as payment for the large mail they transport weekly across the Atlantic.
EDWARD CUNARD, No. 4 Bowling-green, is the agent of the company in this city.
It will thus be seen by the above sketches of the various lines of steamships running from this and other ports to the different ports in Europe, that there are seven leading lines, all owned abroad. This fact appears strange, when we consider the immense importance of having at least one American line plying between this country and Europe; but nearly all the lines enumerated above have enjoyed the benefits of either government subsidies or positive encouragement from foreign nations.
Since the Collins line was compelled to withdraw from the field by reason of a lack of proper support from the united governments, but few attempts have been made by American capitalists to establish a transatlantic line of steam packets, and those faint endeavors have always come to nothing. Let us hope that now the war is happily over, our government will take the matter into consideration, and afford some adequate and substantial support to the many leading capitalists who would be ready, in such an event, to at once establish a new line, one that would be a source of pride and credit to the nation. It is a disgrace to a nation like the United States, that all her mails should be carried to Europe in foreign-built and foreign-owned bottoms.
The United States gunboat Pawtucket, Lieutenant-Commander ALLEN V. REED, from Fortress Monroe, arrived yesterday. Her officers are as follows:
Commander, JAMES H. SPOLT, absent, sick; Lieutenant-Commander, Allen V. Reed; Acting Master and Pilot, Lorenzo Baker; Acting Assistant Surgeon, E.S. Perkins; Acting Assistant Paymaster, Geo. A. Emerson; Acting Ensigns, J.O. Winchester, G.H. Dodge, A.F. Treet, absent, sick; Mates, W.J. Lewis, L.F. Papanti; Second Assistant Engineers, Aug. H. Able, J.G. Cooper, N. Knowlton; Acting Third Engineers, James Spies, J.M. Duncan, N.G. Vandergriff; Captain’s Clerk, M. Bell; Paymaster’s Clerk, S.P. Stookbridge.